Geography

Georgia is located in the South Caucasus region. It has a land area of 69,700 sq.km. 1.660 km of borders and 310 km of coast. It adjoins Russia to the north, Turkey and Armenia to the south and Azerbaijan to the south-east. To the west it is bounded by the Black Sea.

The Black Sea has no more than 0.2 to 0.3 % salinity. In summer, water temperature often reaches 24°С.

There are 3 main ports on the Black Sea coast: Batumi, Poti and Sukhumi. Other ports include Kulevi, Kobuleti and Anaklia. Raw materials and necessary goods are imported and exported by sea.

The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range stretches for 700 km from north-west to south-east Georgia. It contains many beautiful snow-capped peaks, including the two highest peaks in Georgia, Mt. Shkhara (5193 m) and Mt. Kazbek (5033 m). Numerous passes, such as Jvari, Mamisoni, Kodori and Roki, connect the North and South Caucasus.

Water is an almost unlimited natural resource in Georgia. The country has over 800 gorgeous lakes, distinguished by their shapes, sizes and depths. Lakes Paravani, Paleastomiand Bazaleti are some of the best known.

Georgia also has several well-known reservoirs, such as the Enguri, Shaori, Tkibuli, Zhinvali, Tbilisi etc. Their water is used for irrigation, drinking and to power hydropower stations.

There are about 26,000 rivers in Georgia, differentiated like the lakes by length, flow and capacity. The rivers of West Georgia flow into the Black Sea, those of East Georgia into the Caspian Sea.

As you might expect, these lakes and rivers are rich with fish. Around 84 species of freshwater fish are found in Georgia, including trout, Colchis barbel, river perch, carp, etc.

Georgia is also especially famous for its abundance of mineral waters. Over 2000 springs have been identified, and the majority have still to be sufficiently studied and developed. However, the healing effects of mineral waters such as Borjomi, Likani, Sairme and Nabeghlavi are internationally known.

Recreational resorts such as Borjomi, Tskhaltubo, Sairme, Nunisi and Shovi are built near these mineral springs. There are 14 national nature reserves, 8 national parks, 12 protected areas, 14 natural monuments and 2 protected areas within Georgia.

Georgia is a multinational state. Ethnic Georgians form the majority of the population. Abkhazians, Armenians, Azerbaijanis, Greeks, Ossetians, Russians, Ukrainians and Yezidis are amongst the other peoples who live in Georgia.

The majority of the Georgian population practices Orthodox Christianity. However Roman Catholics, Muslims, Jews and followers of many other religions are also well established in Georgia.